Top 100 Scientific Inventions That Changed The World - P1: Printing Press

30-08-2022

(Wcsa.world)A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.

It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed repeatedly to achieve the transfer of ink, and accelerated the process. Typically used for texts, the invention and global spread of the printing press was one of the most influential events in the second millennium.

In Germany, around 1440, goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg invented the movable-type printing press, which started the Printing Revolution. Modeled on the design of existing screw presses, a single Renaissance movable-type printing press could produce up to 3,600 pages per workday,compared to forty by hand-printing and a few by hand-copying. Gutenberg's newly devised hand mold made possible the precise and rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities.

 

Gutenberg didn’t live to see the immense impact of his invention. His greatest accomplishment was the first print run of the Bible in Latin, which took three years to print around 200 copies, a miraculously speedy achievement in the day of hand-copied manuscripts.

From Mainz the movable-type printing press spread within several decades to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries. The arrival of mechanical movable type printing in Europe in the Renaissance introduced the era of mass communication, which permanently altered the structure of society. I By 1800, Lord Stanhope had built a press completely from cast iron which reduced the force required by 90%, while doubling the size of the printed area. With a capacity of 480 pages per hour, the Stanhope press doubled the output of the old style press.

Two ideas altered the design of the printing press radically: First, the use of steam power for running the machinery, and second the replacement of the printing flatbed with the rotary motion of cylinders. Both elements were for the first time successfully implemented by the German printer Friedrich Koenig in a series of press designs devised between 1802 and 1818.The first production trial of this model occurred in April 1811. He produced his machine with assistance from German engineer Andreas Friedrich Bauer. Koenig and Bauer sold two of their first models to The Times in London in 1814, capable of 1,100 impressions per hour.

According to en.wikipedia.org


Chris (collect) - WCSA - World Science Academy Of Records ( Source of photo : Internet)